Wilborn (2013) investigated the potential effects of ingestion of two types of protein in conjunction with a controlled resistance training program in collegiate female basketball players. Sixteen NCAA Division III female basketball players were matched according to body mass and randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to consume 24 g whey protein (WP) (N = 8, 20.0 years, 1.58 m, 66 kg, 27.0 %BF) or 24 g casein protein (CP) (N = 8, 21.0 years, 1.53 m, 68.0 kg, 25.0 %BF) immediately pre- and post-exercise for eight weeks. Subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week undulating periodized training program. At 0 and 8 weeks, subjects underwent DXA body composition analysis, and at 0 and 8 weeks underwent one repetition maximum (1RM) strength, muscle endurance, vertical jump, agility run, and broad jump testing sessions.
When resistance training, a person experiences muscle activation and damage that stimulates protein turnover. If the body is lacking sufficient levels of amino acids, both pre- and post-exercise, the result is a negative protein balance, stimulating muscle wasting and delaying exercise recovery (Wilborn 2013). It is essential that athletes consume enough protein while also appropriately timing their protein consumption in order to have a positive nitrogen balance and eventual muscle hypertrophy. A large number of athletes and exercisers have turned to protein supplements to meet these high demands on the body. With varying amounts of information given to this population, including information that may be false or misleading, it is important for researchers to test various protein timing options, all possible types of proteins, and to utilize all populations as test subjects (Wilborn 2013).
No significant group x time interaction effects were observed among groups in changes in any variable. A significant time effect was observed for body fat (WP: -2.0 %BF; CP: -1.0 %BF), lean mass (WP: 1.5 kg; CP: 1. 4 kg), fat mass (WP: -1.3 kg; CP: -0.6 kg)leg press 1RM (WP: 88.7 kg; CP: 90.0 kg), bench press 1RM (WP: 7.5 kg; CP: 4.3 kg), vertical jump (WP: 4.1 cm; CP: 3.5 cm), 5-10-5 (WP: -0.3 sec; CP: -0.09 sec), and broad jump (WP: 10.4 cm; CP: 12. 9 cm). The combination of a controlled undulating resistance training program with pre- and post-exercise protein supplementation is capable of inducing significant changes in performance and body composition. There does not appear to be a difference in the performance- enhancing effects between whey and casein proteins.
The mixture of a resistance training program with pre- and post-exercise protein supplementation had a significant impact on performance and body composition for both whey protein and casein protein groups. There does not appear to be a difference with performance enhancing effects of whey versus casein proteins, and both prove to be beneficial to athletic performance in female athletes for both strength and body composition.
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Wilborn CD, Taylor LW, Outlaw J, Williams L, Campbell B, Foster CA, Smith-Ryan A, Urbina S, Hayward S. The Effects of Pre- and Post-Exercise Whey vs. Casein Protein Consumption on Body Composition and Performance Measures in Collegiate Female Athletes. J Sports Sci Med. 2013 Mar 1;12(1):74-9.
Written by Chris Barber, CPT